Thursday, December 17, 2009


In Lebanon CT on 3/4/1781, Washington stopped at the home of Col. Jonathon Trumbull. Washington was on his way to Rhode Island. Lebanon is still a farm community on a crossroads.

Below is the home of William Williams, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and also from Lebanon.

The War office for Trumbull is just down the road from his home and across from the town green. On the green, Washington reviewed the cavalry Legion of the Duke de Lauzun. Originally the War office was the merchant shop for Trumbull.

Below is the home of Col. Jonathon Trumbull, future Governor of of Connecticut. He was also Father of John Trumbull. The younger Trumbull was an aide to Washington and a painter. His paintings are famous and one is on the back of the twenty dollar bill.

Tuesday, December 15, 2009


Morristown New Jersey was home to Washington's headquarters numerous times during the Revolutionary War. This statue commemorates the frequent stays by the General.

Starting on 1/6/1777 to5/28/1777, the General retreated to Morristown after the victory at Princeton.
He stayed at the tavern owned by Co. Jacob Arnold on the town square. The building is now gone. So was much of the army. Washington depended mostly on the militia. They harassed the British Soldiers preventing them from resupply.
Washington was afraid that the British would discover how weak he was and attack. The militia activity prevented the enemy from gaining a clear picture of their advantage. The supplies that Washington needed came in slower and slower.

He tried to rebuild the army and challenged the British and Hessian forces who came to New Jersey for supplies.
He also organized an attack on Staten Island under the command of Lord Stirling. Alexander Hamilton became one of his aides.

He returned 7/4-7/10 1777. Washington was not sure of what General Howe in New York City would do. Would Howe move North to join up with General Burgoyne or South to attack Philadelphia. He moved the army to Morristown to position himself to go in either direction.

He stayed overnight at Arnold's Tavern on 6/3/1779. The British seemed to be making an advance on the Hudson Highlands and Washington stopped overnight before pushing on for West Point.

Returning again on 12/1/1779 to 6/6/1780, Washington stayed at the Ford Mansion. The trials endured by the Continental Army while encamped at Morristown are incredible. The army was starving, maybe eating every 3-5 days. It was a terrible winter with bitter cold. The only good news that came out of this camp was the news from Lafayette that the French would come with troops and a Navy to support Washington.

Again on 11/27/1780. Washington stopped to visit troops in the hospitals before moving on to New Windsor.

Lord Stirling's Headquarters in Parsippany near Troy Hills. A private home.
Stirling protected the North flank of Washington's command. From here, he launched his attack on Staten Island with the use of hundreds of sleds to move troops.

Reproductions of the cabins for the troops at Jockey Hollow.

More cabins and a training ground in front of the cabins.

The Ford Mansion. It is a beautiful museum open to the public.

The troops cabin in front and junior officers cabins to the rear. Endurance levels would have been unbelievable. Thank goodness they had it.

Tuesday, December 8, 2009


Looking at Pennsylvania from New Jersey across the Delaware. The river is smooth and beautiful now unlike the night of Washington's Crossing.

It is 1776 and on the night of December 25th, Washington assembled what was left of his army and put them on boats to cross back from Pennsylvania into New Jersey. He planned a surprise attack at dawn on the Hessian's who were occupying Trenton. These were the same Hessian's who were ferocious in the Battle of Brooklyn. They bayoneted all who came in their path, including those who surrendered.
There were about 900 Hessian's, Washington had about 2000 worn out men left.

Washington had approximately 25,000 men at the Battle of Brooklyn in August. He lost 95% of his command in the battles that followed and his retreat across New Jersey. If he did not attack now, then the rest would be lost along with the cause.

The McConkey's Ferry Inn in Pennsylvania. Washington gathered troops together here for the crossing of the Delaware. Barely fed, freezing and their enlistments about to expire, it did not seem that Washington had anything going for him with these men. A closer look shows that they were tough. Some had fought at Bunker Hill and at every battle since. Yes, they had lost, but they would not quit. They had given their word to finish out their enlistments and that is what they would do. Also, with every battle, they and their officers became better soldiers and better professionals.

Below is the Thompson-Neely House. Now a museum, in the days leading up to the crossing, it was headquarters for General William Alexander, aka, Lord Stirling. His Lt. was James Monroe, future President.

A reproduction of a ferry boat that would have brought horses and cannon across the Delaware for Col. Henry Knox. Below is the Merrick House, headquarters of General Nataniel Greene. Greene led the left wing of Washington's attack on Trenton. The home is privately owned.

The Keith House, Headquarters to General Washington from 12/15/1776 to 12/24/1776. The house is privately owned and modernized, but you can still see the old outline of the original.

The Nelson House on the Jersey side of the Delaware. Washington was given a quick bite by the inhabitants. He watched the boats coming over the river. He knew he was behind schedule, but turning back was not an option. The watchword for the night was "Victory or Death".

The journey from the ferry to Trenton was about nine miles over frozen roads in the dark. The horses to pull the cannons were not able, so the soldiers had to pull and push the artillery all the way. Two Continental soldiers laid down on the side of the road and never got up, frozen. Washington wanted to attack at dawn, but he was hours behind. Fog rolled in giving him time and saving the attack.


Old time Trenton roads were laid out in the shape of a capital A. The top of the A was pointing North and a road led North-east to Princeton. The left leg of the capital A was closest to the Delaware River and the right leg led South to a bridge over the Assunpink Creek. Trenton was a sleepy little country town in 1776. The Hessians were an outpost for the British Army which was camped at Princeton. Colonel Johann Rall was in command. He was a tough veteran commander, but careful with his troops. He had beaten the American rebels all summer and had no respect for them as soldiers.

Washington stayed with the left wing of his army and split again to stay with the center of the attacking force made up of the artillery. General Greene would lead General's Stephen, Mercer, and Lord Stirling on the left flank. General John Sullivan led the right wing of Glover, Sargent and St. Clair along the river and stop at the bridge South of town to prevent the Hessians from escaping Washington's trap.

At 8:15 the attack began with the Continental's coming out of the fog at the Hessian sentinels. The Hessians fell back and the alarm went up. Knox and Capt. Alexander Hamilton swung their cannons into position at the top of the A. Their field of fire controlled both legs of the A. Below is the modern look South into the two streets controlled by Knox's nine cannon.

The Battle of Trenton Monument at the top of the A. Col. Rall could not believe the Americans would attack him and rallied his men. The grapeshot fired down the streets was merciless. Rall watched his men fall and was wounded himself. He tried to fall back and regroup, but he was wounded again, fatally. The Hessian second in command led his men South to the bridge to escape and met with Sullivan's men, he could not break through and was also fatally wounded. The Hessians then moved East of town into orchards only to find General Greene's Division closing in. They were surrounded and drew down their colors or flags, the battle was over.

The untrained rag-tag Americans had defeated the Hessians, killing 22, wounding 84 and capturing 834.

The British purchased the services of 30,000 Germanic Soldiers from German princes. There was no united Germany in 1776. These troops came from Hesse Cassel, Hesse Hanau, Brunswick, Anspach, Bayreuth, Anhalt Zerbst and Waldeck.

Hesse Cassel 16,992 ,
Hesse Hannau 2,422
Brunswick 5,723
Anspach - Bayreuth 2,553
Anhalt Zerbst 1,152
Waldeck 1,225
Total sent was just over 30,000 from 1776 to 1782; 12,562 did not return... 7,754 dead and 4,808 remained in America due to Washington's insistence that the captured soldiers be treated well.
All are generally referred to as "Hessians" because of the large number of Hessians that came and their General Knypyhausen was commander of the entire German force which contributed to the common reference of "Hessian Soldiers".

The Old Barracks in Trenton is open as a museum. It does a great job. Originally built for British Soldiers for the French and Indian War.

The barrels of spirits found in Trenton were destroyed. Washington was afraid of a counterattack and did not want his men unable to defend themselves.

The Crossing is redone every year at Washington State Park on Christmas and a rehearsal day just before.

Friday, November 20, 2009


The Dey Mansion of Totowa New Jersey was home to Washington 7/1-28/1780. It is still a beautiful home and one of my favorites of all of Washington's Headquarters. Colonel Theunis Dey has a wonderful home. The Watchung Hills to the East protect the local militia and army from direct British attack.
While here Washington waited for news of the French. On July 14th, the news came. The French Fleet had come to Newport Rhode Island.
Count de Rochambeau had landed with 6000 thousand troops.
Washington left here to gather forces and protect the flank of his newly arrived ally. The word was, the British were moving towards Newport.
He returns 10/8-11/26/1780. The French Fleet has been caught in the Newport harbor by the British squadron and of late, 10 more ships have arrived from the West Indies.
Washington also learned that his General, Benedict Arnold had betrayed him.
On 10/22, Washington was ordering changes to the Southern army. General Gates, the hero of Saratoga had beaten badly by Lord Cornwallis and was subject to a board of inquiry. Washington had decided to send his reliable General Greene south to rebuild the command.
Washington had learned of the victory at King's Mountain and the link up with the French was underway.

Wednesday, November 18, 2009


On 11/15/1782, Washington stayed at the home of Cornelius Wynkoop in Stone Ridge New York. Wynkoop was a colonel in the Continental Army.

Washington dined and stayed the night here before moving on to Kingston NY. His body guard stayed at the tavern across the road.

Washington was moving North to meet with General Schuyler and visit the battle sites of the Northern Campaign.


Friday, November 13, 2009


The Drake House pictured was used by Washington on 6/24/1777. It is in Plainfield New Jersey.
Washington moved the Army into the area as the British Army withdrew to the East into Amboy.

The house has been modernized over the years, so I took this picture to show the older lines of the house.

Thursday, November 12, 2009


Captain Thomas Doremus in Montville New Jersey hosted General Washington on 6/25/1780. Washington was not sure which way the British Army was going to march. He thought that they would attack West Point, but then the British moved West from Elizabeth and the Battle of Springfield took place.

Washington was caught between posts.

The house was also used by Rochembeau and the French Army as they marched South to the Battle of Yorktown in 1781. The orchard across the road from the house was the campsite of thousands of French infantry. Alexander Hamilton also stayed at the house.

The house has just been restored beautifully. Go and see!

Wednesday, November 11, 2009


In Warwick New York, at the town center, is this beautiful church. In the grounds around it, a celebration is held every year on July 27th of George Washington's visit in 1782.
He dined in the Baird Tavern. We don't know for sure if he stayed the night, but we do know that Martha did. Both were on their way to Newburgh New York for the Winter encampment and the end of the war.

The festival has music, kids activities, en actors, food, and local artisans. Some taught my daughter to make a wreath for her hair...nice. Warwick is a beautiful sleepy town. My kids and my wife all had a great time.

The artillery let off a charge to celebrate the arrival of General Washington!

The General and his ensign. The General gave a few words.

The Baird Tavern is open for the day. It has an active support group and has been lucky to have the support of the community.

Tuesday, November 10, 2009


A private home.

On 10/21/1777, the British Army pulled back out of Germantown into Philadelphia for the Winter. Washington moved the Continental Army closer and took up quarters in the home of James Morris called Dawesfield. Dawesfield is in Ambler Penn and is privately owned.

Washington stayed here till Nov. 1st, 1777. During his time in residence, he learned of the gallant defence of Fort Mercer in Red Bank NJ. He offered a pardon to any soldier who deserted to return to the ranks, and the outcome of the court martial of General Anthony Wayne.

Wayne was cleared of wrong doing in his leadership at the Paoli massacre. Washington was slowly moving towards Valley Forge.

Monday, November 9, 2009


From 8/23/1783-11/3/1783, Washington stayed at the Rockingham in Rocky Hill NJ. The Rockingham was 4 miles north of Princeton. Princeton was the home of the Congress at this time of the war.

The house was owned by Judge Berrian and is near the Millstone River. While in residence, Washington conferred with British representatives over the surrender of New York City.

He also received many guests and foreign dignitaries, dined with Martha and sat for a portrait by Charles Wilson Peale of Philadelphia. The duties of running the army fell to General Henry Knox. While here, Washington made a sizable donation to Princeton.

The house still stands. It has been moved many times, but now seems settled and is in good order, ready for visitors.

An ezhistory tour was attended by this gentleman who didn't get out of frame fast enough.

Sunday, November 8, 2009


Not a public house.
On 11/15/1782, General Washington stayed with his friend Col. Cornelius Wynkoop in Stone Ridge NY.
Washington was moving North to meet with General Schuyler and a review of the New York State campaign.

At this time, the Asgill incident was concluded. Captain Charles Asgill was a British POW selected by lot to be executed in retaliation for the
death of Captain Joshua Huddy. Huddy was taken prisoner in Monmouth County New Jersey and hanged on April 12th. Letters were written to the French ambassador to intercede with Washington and Congress. Congress allowed Washington to release Asgill, so a pass was written allowing Asgill to travel to New York City and the British Forces there.

Washington moved onto Kingston NY on 11/16/1782. That house is gone.

Saturday, November 7, 2009


The Hendrik Van Allen home was host to Washington on 7/14/1777 in Oakland NJ. Washington was waiting out storms which made the roads impassable. The army was aware of Burgoyne marching South and the surrender of Ticonderoga back to British hands.
Lord Howe had the British Army aboard the ships of the fleet at Staten Island NY. Washington was waiting for some word as to where they were heading. If they went North to aid Burgoyne, he had his army in Northern New Jersey. If they sailed South to Philadelphia, then he would march South.

Friday, November 6, 2009


A private home.

On 1/3/1777, Washington left the battlefield of Princeton and moved the army to Millstone NJ, then Somerset Court house. He resided in the home of John Van Doren while some of his officers slept in the barns out back. One of the officers was Lt. James Monroe still recovering from his wounds at the 1st battle of Trenton.

So in ten days, Washington and the Continentals had fought three battles winning all three. With an army weakened from depravation, he had marched, counter marched and outflanked two of the best armies in the world. He would leave Millstone and move the army first to Pluckemin and then Morristown.

Thursday, November 5, 2009


It's 1/1/1777 and in this small house Washington had a war council. The Douglass house in Trenton NJ. The first Battle of Trenton on Christmas was a victory for the Continentals.
Now The British and Hessian Armies were marching southwest from Princeton to attack Washington in full at Trenton.
Washington had sent out a small force to challenge the British progress on their march. This gave the Continentals time to prepare their position on the hill overlooking the town. The British and Hessians came on and attacked three times into the evening. The ground was covered in dead as the Americans would not yield.

Washington also knew that if he stayed on his hill, the British under Cornwallis would surround him and destroy him. So in the small Douglass house, Washington held a council. Greene, Sullivan, Cadwalader, Mercer, and Knox all voiced their opinions. The plan developed to withdraw the army at night and quietly march northwest to Princeton and attack the rear of the British Army.

So, camp fires were kept burning and the army quietly marched out at night.
They reformed the next morning and attacked the 7000 man British and Hessian Army at Princeton.

The Douglass House is currently being rehabbed and it is needed.

Wednesday, November 4, 2009


The Frederick Antes home was host to General Washington from 9/22-25/1777 in Upper Frederick Township Penn.
Washington regrouped his army in the fields surrounding trying to refit his men with blankets, food and repair weapons. All this in days of pouring rain and while the British Army maneuvered its way into Philadelphia.
Washington would ready his forces for the attack on Germantown.

The house is being restored and needs help.

Tuesday, November 3, 2009


The Hermitage in Ho-Ho-Kus New Jersey. Washington stayed here first on 7/10-14/1778 and again on 12/6-7/1778 as the guest of the widow Provost. Mrs. Provost was the widow of a British Officer who had patriotic sympathies. She was also believed by her neighbors to be a Loyalist. By hosting Washington and officers at her home, she showed her loyalty to the cause.
One of the officers she met was Aaron Burr. She later married him on these grounds.

Washington recieved praise from Congress for the Battle of Monmoth and learned that the French Fleet had arrived at Newport.

As you walk the grounds, it is hard to pick out the revolutionary time period. The guides are wonderful and they will help. The house also entertained the wife of Benedict Arnold as she traveled South shortly after the traitor was found out.

Monday, November 2, 2009


The King of Prussia Tavern is in King of Prussia Pennsylvania right in the mall area. At the time of the Revolution, it was named Berry's Tavern.

Washington is strongly believed to have Thanksgiving Dinner here with his officers in 1777. Thanksgiving was a New England tradition that Washington would have been familiar with. I do not know what his personal view was, but as a farmer at heart, I think he would have supported it.

It is thought that the name change to King of Prussia was to encourage the Hessian POW's to remain after the war locally. Also there were many officers that served with Germanic roots like Von Stueben and de Kalb.

The tavern eventually became landlocked due to road development for the mall. The state, local chamber of commerce and local interest groups combined to move the tavern and save it. They did a beautiful job!

It is adjacent to the Home Depot and worth the stop. Also, Lafayette was put through the Mason Ceremony here.

Sunday, November 1, 2009


In Pluckemin NJ, Martha Washington joined her husband on 1/4-5/1777 right after the Battle of Princeton. Incredible when you consider that in the month prior, a British raid destroyed the town. The British Cavalry burned the church, robbed many dwellings, drove off cattle and disrupted the village.

On 1/5/1777, British Captain William Leslie was buried in Pluckemin by Dr. Benjamin Rush. Rush was good friends with Leslie's sister when he was younger and studied medicine in Scotland. Leslie was the son of the Earl of Leven. Washington made sure that Capt, Leslie was buried with full military honors.
When I walked in the cemetary, I was drawn to the grave because it was the only Union Jack marker among all the American veteran flags. I wanted to know why.
Also in Pluckemin is the Boylan House, pictured below. Mr. and Mrs. Boylan hosted the Washington's for the Grand Alliance Ball of 2/18/1779. General Knox organized the ball for 400 guests to honor the French-American Alliance. Festivities included a thirteen gun salute, dinner, fireworks and a ball with the first dance between Washington and Mrs. Knox.
It was behind the Boylan House, in the fields that Knox organized an artillery corp. 1600 men with 60 cannons were trained as a forerunner to West Point.

Saturday, October 31, 2009


On 9/6/1777 Washington reined in his horse here at the Hale-Byrnes House in Stanton Delaware. The Continentals had just fought the Battle of Cooches Bridge. After the battle, Washington had a council of war to determine how best to move against the British.

Legend has it that Washington rested in the shade of the tree in front and was brought water by the son of the home owner.

House is in good shape and open to the public the first Wednesday of the month.

Friday, October 30, 2009


The Hermitage in Elkton Maryland used by General Washington on 8/25/ 1777. He dined with Robert Alexander, home owner, who was a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776.
Three days later, Alexander dined with General Howe and pledged his loyalty to the KING. He left for England, never to return.

Howe moved North with his army to meet Washington at Brandywine.

Thursday, October 29, 2009


Streeper's Ordinary tavern of Narbeth Pennsylvania.
On 9/12-9/13 1777 Washington stayed here as the army regrouped from the Battle of Brandywine. The army straggled in and refitted.

The tavern owners, misters Streeper and Oridinary had good fare.

The tavern became the General Wayne Inn, seen. It fell on hard times and was bought for use as a Jewish Community Center. I ran into a young Rabbi who was very enthusiastic about the building showing me all he could before he had to go to service.

Wednesday, October 28, 2009


The Robinson House in Claymont Delaware. On 8/25/1777, General Washington moved the Continental Army south to meet the British threat to Philadelphia. They marched south through Philly into Delaware.

The house hosted Washington, Anthony Wayne, Lafayette, and "Light Horse" Harry Lee.

The house is in beautiful condition, but is surrounded by a mill district.

Monday, October 26, 2009


The Powell House in Philadelphia is a beautiful townhouse from the Revolutionary period. Washington became good friends with the Powell's and was entertained here as often as he visited.
He stayed in the row house next door. That house was torn down. Washington used it after the Spanish Representative who was using it passed away and was buried in Morristown.
The Powell's are known to have thrown a party in Washington's honor in their music room. It was there that George danced with Ben Franklin's daughter.

Sunday, October 25, 2009


On 10/2/1777, General Washington stayed at the Peter Wentz house in Center Point Penn. From here the army prepared to attack the British and Hessian forces at Germantown.

Also, on 10/16- 10/20/1777, Washington returned here to draw the British attention away from the forts on the Delaware. The forts eventually fell.

It was here that Washington and the army learned of the victory at Saratoga. General Burgoyne surrendered his entire army. The victory was encouraging for French entry into the war as allies.

The house and farm is in great condition and has visiting hours.

Saturday, October 24, 2009


Rodgers Tavern used by Washington and the Continental and french Armies as they raced South to Yorktown. Perryville Maryland
had the ferry needed to move the armies in 1781.

The tavern has been restored, but it is still in need of assistance.

Friday, October 23, 2009


The Grand Canyon may be beyond description and adjectives are insufficient for description. Yellowstone can be described if you use superlatives. Spectacular, amazing, wonderful, beautiful and magnificent! Glorious too!

So here is the Lamar Valley. You will have an excellent chance of seeing herds of Buffalo, Elk and Deer. Sometimes they are close to the road and sometimes you need a good pair of binoculars.

This one was right next to us and we were so excited that we failed to get out our camera until he started to walk away.

On the western loop looking East towards the Canyon. Established in 1872, Yellowstone is the first National Park. It is mostly in Wyoming, but also Montana and Idaho.
Green Springs formed from the HOT water and the minerals.

Emerald Springs. The smell is sulphur and can be pretty strong. Despite all the warnings, people still step on the edges and risk getting burned and damaging the beauty.


Old Faithful! You are in the heart of a thermal area. There are geysers shooting up all around you.

A natural formation opposite Tower Falls below.

The Grand Tetons just South of Yellowstone.
The money shot below at Oxbow Bend.

The view of the Tetons on the way South to Jackson's Hole.

The Grand Tetons with Jackson Lake.

A trail leading down to Jackson Lake and the Grand Tetons beyond. The mosquitoes were very bad.
Just below Yellowstone is Grand Teton National Park. The mountain portion was preserved in 1929 and the valley across from it preserved in 1950 with the help of the Rockefeller family.